Employee Retention Credit for Seasonal Businesses: A Deeper Dive

The Employee Retention Credit (ERC) has emerged as a beacon of hope for businesses affected by the unprecedented challenges of recent years. While the credit has been instrumental for many, seasonal businesses, with their unique operational models, face distinctive challenges in leveraging it. Let’s delve further into the ERC and unpack its implications and benefits for seasonal businesses.

Background of the Employee Retention Credit

The CARES Act heralded the introduction of the ERC as a way to encourage businesses to keep employees on their payroll during the economic downturn caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The idea was simple: offer tax credits to businesses that retain their staff, easing financial strains and promoting economic stability.

Distinct Nature of Seasonal Businesses

Seasonal businesses, by definition, have operational models that are time-bound, often aligning with specific seasons or festivals. From pumpkin patches operating in the fall to ski lodges in winter, their revenue and employment patterns deviate significantly from conventional businesses. This cyclic nature impacts their financial health differently, making universal relief measures sometimes less effective.

Eligibility Criteria and Its Nuances

Determining ERC eligibility typically revolves around showcasing a noticeable decline in gross receipts or being subjected to certain governmental operational suspension orders. However, the seasonal nature of some businesses introduces some complexities:

  • Comparing Relevant Periods: Unlike year-round businesses, seasonal businesses might see the majority of their revenue in one or two quarters. Hence, it’s essential to compare the gross receipts of a peak season quarter with that of a previous year to establish the required reduction.
  • Defining Operation Seasons: Properly defining and documenting the start and end of the operational season ensures that the credit calculations are accurate, maximizing potential benefits.

Unpacking Credit Calculation for Seasonal Employees

Calculating the ERC for seasonal businesses requires a nuanced approach:

  • Wage Identification: Recognize the wages you paid to employees during the quarters you’re claiming the credit for. This will form the primary basis for your credit.
  • Healthcare Costs Consideration: Seasonal businesses can also factor in part of the healthcare costs when calculating the ERC, adding to the potential refund amount.
  • Application of Credit Percentage: Applying the appropriate credit percentage (e.g., 50% for much of 2020) to the qualified wages will give you the credit amount. However, this is subject to periodic updates, so staying informed is crucial.
  • Wage Caps: There’s a maximum wage amount per employee eligible for the credit. Make sure your calculations respect this cap to ensure compliance.

Potential Challenges: Navigating the Maze

The path to claiming the ERC is fraught with potential pitfalls for seasonal businesses:

  • Inconsistent Employment Durations: The sporadic and short-term nature of seasonal hiring means businesses need to be vigilant in tracking and documenting employment periods.
  • Revenue Inconsistencies: The revenue peaks and troughs typical for seasonal businesses can make comparative analyses more intricate, demanding closer attention.
  • Impeccable Documentation: The importance of thorough documentation cannot be overstated. From wages to operational days, every detail counts.

Best Practices for Seasonal Businesses

To optimize the benefits of the ERC, seasonal businesses should:

  • Prioritize Record-Keeping: Detailed records of wages, employment periods, and associated costs can streamline the claim process.
  • Stay Abreast of Changes: The ERC guidelines have undergone multiple revisions. Regularly checking for updates can help businesses stay compliant and maximize their credit.
  • Seek Expertise: Given the inherent complexities, consulting with a tax expert or financial advisor who understands the ERC can be invaluable.

Peering into the Future

While the ERC’s benefits have been palpable, its future trajectory remains a matter of conjecture. As economies stabilize and legislative agendas evolve, seasonal businesses must stay vigilant to new changes and adjust their approaches accordingly.

Real-world Implications for Seasonal Businesses

To truly grasp the significance of the ERC for seasonal businesses, one must understand its real-world implications:

  • Cash Flow Boost: Many seasonal businesses experience cash flow constraints during off-peak periods. The ERC provides an influx of funds, helping businesses meet their financial obligations and possibly invest in future endeavors.
  • Employee Morale and Retention: By offering incentives to retain employees, the ERC indirectly supports employee morale. Workers feel more secure knowing they’re less likely to face layoffs, and this sense of stability often results in enhanced loyalty and productivity.
  • Operational Continuity: Hiring and training are resource-intensive processes. By retaining staff, seasonal businesses can ensure smooth operations when peak seasons resume, without the hitches and delays of onboarding new staff.

ERC: Beyond Just a Financial Support

While the primary attraction of the ERC is its financial incentive, its impact on the broader business landscape is worth noting:

  • Stabilizing Local Economies: Seasonal businesses are vital contributors to local economies, especially in tourist-centric areas. By supporting these businesses, the ERC indirectly ensures the economic stability of entire communities.
  • Encouraging Business Resilience: The relief provided by the ERC can serve as a cushion, enabling businesses to strategize for long-term resilience. This might include diversifying revenue streams, investing in digital transformation, or expanding their service offerings.

Navigating Post-ERC Realities

The ERC, while significant, is a temporary relief measure. It’s crucial for seasonal businesses to plan for a future where this support might no longer be available:

  • Strategic Financial Planning: With the ERC’s sunset on the horizon, businesses need to prioritize financial planning. This could involve setting up contingency funds, re-evaluating business models, or seeking alternative financing options.
  • Engaging Stakeholders: Whether it’s employees, investors, or the local community, it’s crucial for businesses to engage with stakeholders. Transparent communication about the business’s financial health and future plans can foster collaborative problem-solving and collective resilience.
  • Leveraging Digital Platforms: The modern business landscape is increasingly digital. Seasonal businesses can benefit from exploring online avenues — be it for marketing, sales, or virtual experiences — to reduce dependency on physical operations and tap into broader audiences.

Conclusion: The Road Ahead


The Employee Retention Credit, in its essence, has been a beacon for many seasonal businesses navigating the stormy seas of economic uncertainty. But as with all support systems, it’s temporary. It’s imperative for businesses to internalize the lessons from this period, use the ERC as a springboard, and strategize for a future that might be as unpredictable as the times we’re emerging from. The resilience, adaptability, and community spirit that seasonal businesses embody will undoubtedly be their greatest assets in the journey ahead.


1. What is the Employee Retention Credit (ERC)?
The ERC is a tax credit established under the CARES Act to encourage businesses to retain employees during times of financial strain, like the COVID-19 pandemic.

2. How do seasonal businesses qualify for the ERC?
Seasonal businesses must either show a significant reduction in gross receipts compared to a similar peak period in a previous year or be subject to governmental orders causing the business suspension.

3. What defines a seasonal business?
A seasonal business operates mainly during specific times of the year. Examples include ski resorts in winter, beach businesses in summer, and Halloween stores in the fall.

4. How is the ERC calculated for seasonal businesses?
The credit is a percentage of qualified wages paid during the eligible quarters. It can also include a portion of healthcare costs. There’s a cap on the wage amount per employee that can be considered.

5. Can seasonal businesses claim the ERC for off-peak seasons?
Typically, the ERC is claimed for periods of significant revenue reduction or forced closures. This may or may not coincide with a business’s off-peak season.

6. Is the ERC a one-time credit?
No. The ERC can be claimed for multiple quarters, provided the business meets the eligibility criteria for each respective quarter.

7. How does the ERC differ from the Paycheck Protection Program (PPP)?
While both offer financial relief, the PPP is a loan designed for payroll protection, which can be forgiven if used for eligible expenses. The ERC is a tax credit aimed at businesses retaining employees. Businesses should consult with financial professionals to understand how to utilize both without overlap.

8. What happens if I claim the ERC but later find out I am ineligible?
You might need to pay back the credit with applicable interest and penalties. Always consult with a tax professional before claiming the credit.


  • Official Guidance on ERC: The IRS’s dedicated page on the Employee Retention Credit offers comprehensive information on eligibility, calculations, and more.
    Link to IRS ERC Page
  • ERC Estimator Tool: This online tool can help seasonal businesses estimate their potential ERC. Ensure you have your financial data on hand for accurate estimates.
    Link to ERC Estimator
  • Webinars on ERC for Seasonal Businesses: Join industry experts discussing the ERC’s nuances for seasonal businesses, ensuring you’re leveraging it effectively.
    Link to Webinar Series
  • Local Business Advisors: Find a local advisor who can guide you on the ERC and other financial relief measures tailored for seasonal businesses.
    Link to Advisor Directory
  • Community Forums: Engage with other seasonal business owners, share experiences, ask questions, and stay updated on the latest ERC changes.
    Link to Business Forums
  • Tax Professional Associations: Associations like the American Institute of CPAs (AICPA) can be instrumental in finding professionals familiar with ERC nuances.
    Link to AICPA

Remember, while these resources provide valuable insights, it’s always best to consult directly with a financial or tax professional regarding your business’s unique circumstances.


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